Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder, which causes an imbalance in the electrolytes that regulate crucial metabolic mechanisms of the body. Derangement of water and electrolyte balances may occur in patients with diabetes mellitus caused by insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to evaluate the electrolytes status (Na, K and Cl) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and investigate their relations to glycemic control. A total of 104 participants aged between 35-60 years for both sexes (males and females) were included in the study; 64 type II diabetic patients and 40 healthy participants. Both groups were matched in age and sex. Blood glucose, HbA1c, Sodium, Potassium and Chloride parameters were biochemically estimated in the study. All the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20 for applying the one-way ANOVA test. Total mean glucose was 172.84 28.88 and 92.6 10.22 for case and control groups, respectively. The mean level of HbA1c was 7.56 1.79 and 5.15 0.73 for case and control subjects, respectively. The mean of electrolyte levels (Na, K and Cl) was 124.95 7.21, 7.13 1.54 and 115.15 10.32 for diabetic patients, respectively and 140.37 3.12, 4.13 0.51 and 98.95 3.20 for healthy subjects, respectively. All the results were statistically significant between the case and control groups. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hyperchloremia were more common in diabetic patients with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c < 6.5%) than those with controlled diabetes (HbA1c > 6.5%). The study revealed that diabetes mellitus could cause electrolyte imbalance, morbidity and mortality in patients. Good glycemic control and regular evaluation of electrolyte levels among diabetic patients can reduce the morbidity and fatalities associated with electrolyte rearrangements.


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