Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, good glycemic
control can prevent or delay the complications associated with chronic hyperglycemia. To identify
the proportion of controlled and uncontrolled diabetes among Libyan patients with type 2 diabetes
mellitus (T2DM) depend on fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and to identify the possible causes
that may lead to poor glycemic control. A cross sectional study, conducted at Tripoli outpatientdiabetic clinic in three primary healthcare centers (PHC) during a period of September and October
2015. 400 cases were participated and selected by systematic random sampling according to the
number of the patients attending to each center and a pre structural questionnaire was used to
collect the data from the selected patients (age, obesity, sex, educational level, smoking, any
associated psycho-emotional event and family history). Of the total 400 diabetics, the percentage of
controlled and uncontrolled diabetes depend on FBS level was 33.2% and 66.8% respectively with
mean FBS of 168.54 ± 70.545 mg/dl (p < 0.001). The age of the patients interviewed ranged
between 19-80 years with mean age of 56.2 ± 11.5. The highest frequency of uncontrolled diabetes
mellitus (UDM) versus controlled diabetes mellitus (CDM) analysis in the study group recorded
among patients aged 32-44 years (71%) attained college education (75%) and working (68.6%),
despite male to female ratio in the study group was 1 : 2. The study found that the UDM regarding
the sex was approximately equivocal due to insignificant difference between male to female ratio
accounted 66.7 : 66.8, respectively. Statistical analysis of the personal data of age, sex, working
status and educational level did not show statistical significance on diabetes control. Further
statistical analysis of UDM group alone regarding age/sex, the results showed statistical
significance with peak frequency for UDM among females (76.9%) existed in the age group 45-57
years. Further analysis of the UDM group alone according to work status and the educational levels
in relation to age/sex relationship, the study categorized the patients into non-working (89.5%)
illiterate female and working male (80.9%) had college education, the working status showed
female predominate in nearly all age groups except at age group 32 - 44 years which showed
solitary male predominance. The UDM among males showed inverse proportion relationship
between age and the current work status while females showed direct proportion relationship
between age and non-working status. The study showed high rates of obesity (53.2%) and the
uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM) scored 72.8% among the obese group )p < 0.015), the
increased obesity rates resulted from the sedentary lifestyle and the availability of unhealthy
Libyan diet. 76.8% of the study group presented with UDM reported defective dietary adherence (p
< 0.001) also 85% of the study group were not adherent to the therapy and follow-up (p < 0.001)
and 72.8% being on insulin therapy alone (p < 0.015). The percentage of patients with uncontrolled
diabetes was higher than the controlled diabetes patients which was nearly comparable to that
reported from many countries. The possible factors implicated for uncontrolled diabetes are high
obesity rate, being non-working, woman aged ≥ 45 years, having either primary school education
or illiterate female existed on (71 - 83) age group, followed by working man having college
education aged between 32 - 44 years, lack of adherence to diabetes management which include the
dietary and the therapeutic measures, lack of physical activity, patients on insulin therapy alone.

Keywords: Diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting blood sugar,
primary health care centers, Libya.

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